“Yatra jiivah tatra shivah”. A ciência para converter a posição microcósmica na posição macrocósmica é prática espiritual. A ciência espiritual “yoga” foi definida como – “Saḿyogo yogo ityukto jiivátmá paramátmanah”. Unificar Jiivátmá (consciência unitária) com Paramátmá (Consciência Suprema) é o que é conhecido como yoga.
A consciência unitária e a Consciência Suprema são duas entidades separadas? Não, eles não são. Mas, enquanto a consciência unitária estiver sob escravidão, ela se move no ciclo cósmico da criação devido ao jogo da vida e da morte dos microcosmos. Quando a mente objetiva, através de sádhaná constante, esgota toda a sua momententa reativa adquirida, torna-se uma com a Consciência Suprema. De fato, os únicos fatores que separam o jiivátma (consciência unitária) de Paramátma (Consciência Suprema) são saḿskáras (momento reativo) e upádhi (qualificação extra). Paramátma é a única entidade imutável.
“Sat” (aquilo que existe) e satya (verdade ou veracidade) são sinônimos. Satya é aquilo que não sofre metamorfose com a mudança de tempo, espaço e pessoa. Todo e qualquer objeto finito está mudando continuamente, mas Brahma ou Satya é infinito, contínuo e eterno. Ele está acima de todas as diferenças espaciais, temporais e pessoais. Os seres humanos, através de sádhaná, terão que superar essas diferenças e estabelecer-se no reino da Veracidade Suprema. Quando eles deixam de tomar entidades finitas como seu objeto mental e direcionam todas as suas potencialidades psíquicas para Parama Brahma, então alcançam um estado mental tão elevado, pela Sua Graça, que são incapazes de ouvir ou sentir qualquer coisa. Eles alcançam a posição suprema. Para atingir essa posição, abhedajiṋána (conhecimento não discriminatório) é indispensável, e isso somente com Sua Graça Cósmica.
Qualquer ação, seja para autopreservação ou a prática espiritual, não é possível sem a graça do Supremo. Mas Sua graça não vem automaticamente – para merecê-la, os seres humanos devem realizar ações virtuosas. Somente ações simples, bonitas e sem mácula podem agradá-Lo e fazer com que Ele derramar Sua bem-aventurada Graça nos aspirantes espirituais. Em nossa vida cotidiana, notamos que a mãe geralmente dá alguns brinquedos ou comida para o filho antes de cumprir seus deveres domésticos. Depois de brincar um pouco com seus brinquedos, a criança de repente se lembra de sua mãe e grita alto para atrair sua atenção. Ela ainda pode estar muito ocupada, mas quando ela ouve seu filho chorando, ela pára o que está fazendo e vai ver o que está errado. Para impedir que seu filho chore, ela pode dar mais doces ou brinquedos. Mas se continuar a exigir a presença da mãe, ela é obrigada a mantê-la no colo e acariciá-la suavemente. Da mesma forma, um sádhaka (aspirante espiritual) chama ardentemente Parama Puruśa (Consciência Suprema). Sua atenção deve ser atraída; e por Sua graça Ele permitirá que o sádhaka alcance a libertação.
Shrii Shrii Anandamurti
Abhedajiṋána and Nirvikalpa Samádhi – 1969
Discurso original completo (em inglês):
Abhedajiṋána and Nirvikalpa Samádhi
Once, when asked about his identity, Shankarácárya said:
“Manobuddhyahaḿkáro cittáni náham.
Na ca shrotra jihve na ca ghráń netre
Na vyoma bhúmirńa tejo na váyuh.
Cidánanda rúpo shivo’haḿ shivo’haḿ.”
[“I am neither mind, nor buddhitattva (‘I am’ feeling), nor ahamtattva (‘I do’ feeling), nor citta (done ‘I’). Similarly, I am neither eyes, nor ears, nor nose, nor tongue, nor skin; neither ether, nor air, nor fire, nor liquid, nor solid. Then what am I or who am I? I am Shiva-Consciousness bliss personified.”]
“Yatra jiivah tatra shivah”. The science to convert the microcosmic stance into the Macrocosmic stance is spiritual practice. Spiritual science “yoga” has been defined as – “Saḿyogo yogo ityukto jiivátmá paramátmanah”. To unify Jiivátmá (unit consciousness) with Paramátmá (Supreme Consciousness) is what is known as yoga.
Are the unit consciousness and the Supreme Consciousness two separate entities? No, they are not. But as long as the unit consciousness is under bondages, it moves around in the cosmic cycle of creation due to the play of life and death of the microcosms. When the objective mind, through constant sádhaná, exhausts all its acquired reactive momenta, it becomes one with the Supreme Consciousness. In fact the only factors separating the jiivátma from Paramátma are it saḿskáras (reactive momenta) and upádhi (extra qualification). Paramátma is the only unchangeable entity. “Sat” (that which exists) and satya ( truth or veracity) are synonymous. Satya is that which undergoes no metamorphosis with the change in time, space and person. Each and every finite object is continually changing, but Brahma or Satya is infinite, continuous and eternal. He is above all spatial, temporal and personal differences. Human beings, through sádhaná, will have to rise above these differences and establish themselves in the realm of Supreme Veracity. When they cease to take finite entities as their mental object, and direct their entire psychic potentialities towards Parama Brahma, then they attain such an exalted mental state, by His Grace, that they are unable to hear or feel anything. They attain the Supreme Stance. To attain this stance abhedajiṋána (non-discriminatory knowledge) is indispensable, and then only with His Cosmic Grace.
Any action, whether for self-preservation or spiritual practice, is not possible without the grace of the Supreme. But His grace does not come automatically – to merit it human beings must perform virtuous deeds. Only simple, beautiful and unblemished actions can please Him, and cause Him to shower His blissful Grace on the spiritual aspirants. In our daily lives we notice that a mother often gives some toys or food to her child before she attends to her household duties. After playing with its toys for a while the child suddenly remembers its mother and cries out loud to attract her attention. She may still be very busy, but when she hears her child crying she stop whatever she’s doing and finds out what’s wrong. To stop her child crying she may give some more sweets or toys. But if it continues to demand the mother’s presence she is compelled to keep it on her lap and gently caress it. Similarly, a sádhaka ardently calls Parama Puruśa, His attention is bound to be drawn; and by His grace He will allow the sádhaka to attain liberation.
Parama Puruśa is non-discriminating – He makes no distinction between the virtuous and the sinful. It’s only the society which discriminates between the two. Both the virtuous and the sinful are His progeny, so both are equally dear to Him.
The concepts of virtue and vice originate in the human mind. Due to the influence of certain propensities, the notion of vice occurs in the mind, causing people to commit acts of sin in the external world. As soon as the influence of those negative propensities is removed from the mind many pious thoughts – the honest desire to do good to others arise in the mind. When the so-called sinners earnestly call the Supreme One and surrender themselves at His altar out of devotion, they no longer remain sinners. By the grace of merciful Parama Puruśa they rise much higher than ordinary people. The lives of the bandit Ratnakar and Aungulimál are clear testimonies of this fact. Within a short one and a half hour span what a great change took place in the heart of a bandit who had mercilessly killed over one thousand people without the least prick of conscience. The rogue Ratnakar was transformed into the illustrious poet Valmiki. Does anyone have the audacity to call Valmiki a bandit? Hence the wicked and the virtuous are equally entitled to attain salvation. The merciful Lord has given clear assurance that His shelter is also for the so-called sinners by saying,
Apicet sudurácáro bhajate mámananyabhák
So’pi tu vinirmuktah mucyate bhavabandhanát
[Even if the sinner of the sinners meditates on Me with undivided attention I will also liberate him.]
Parama Puruśa, the Supreme Cognitive Faculty, is consciousness personified. He is not bound by the bondages of relativity. Invariably microcosms are in triple bondages. In some minds the bondage of the relative factors is so great, and the mental outlook so narrow, that if a person happens to be a native of Bihar he will think that West Bengal is a foreign country. For narrow minded people even a place 20 miles away from their home is treated as a foreign land. But a person who is free from the triple bondages and has thus become one with the Macrocosmic Mind has attained the non-discriminatory knowledge (abhedajiṋána).
This knowledge functions both internally and externally. When the unit mind becomes as expansive as the universe, it becomes one with the Cosmic Mind. And when the unit mind becomes one with the unit consciousness (jiivátmá), attaining the state of mindlessness, the unit consciousness and Supreme Consciousness ( Paramátmá) become one. The microcosm which is established in the Supreme Stance (Brahma bháva), becomes Brahma Himself. “Brahmavid brahmaeva bhavati”.
While describing this state the mystic poet Ramprasada said,
Prasád bale, “Yá chili bhái, tái habi re nidenkále,
(Yeman) jaler bimba jale uday, jal haye se misháy jale.”
[Prasád says, “You will be, O brother, what you are, just like water bubbles, which, on rising to the surface of the water, become water again.”]
Spiritually-realized people are respected as mahapuruśas by the society and placed on the high pedestal of honour and reverence in the society. In philosophical terms, these people, having traversed the path of saiṋcara and pratisaiṋcara have ultimately reached their cherished desideratum. That’s why they are the venerable members of society. It’s a matter of deep regret that some mean-minded people, due to acute ignorance, are inclined to criticize or censor these honourable and adorable personalities. To do that is as good as criticizing the Supreme Entity Himself, and is thus highly reproachable. All the great personalities of the world have attained the highest spiritual stance through intense spiritual meditation.
Those who impatiently preach to their followers, “Our God is the only God – others are false”, encourage communal differences directly and indirectly. Such defective teachings, such baneful exhortations, have caused many bloody battles in the name of religion. Even today we find a reoccurrence of this distressing situation. The self motivated and wicked intellect of a handful of religious leaders is at the root of these abominable incidents. One should always remember that all the great personalities of the different religious communities deserve equal respect. They are the collective glory of the human society. We may have built new path of movement for the progress of the society according to the needs of a particular age – a path which may be somewhat different from the one on which the great personalities trod – but that does not mean that we will not extend our respect to those venerable personalities.
Now the question is, how can people acquire this non-discriminatory knowledge? The answer is, through the practice of Iishvara prańidhana and abhidhyána. There are several interpretations of the word “Iishvara”. According to some, “Iishte yah sah Iishvarah”. That is, the one who controls everything is Iishvara. According to Maharsi Pataiṋjali, “Klesha karma vipákáshayaeraparámrśth Puruśa visheśa Iishvarah”. That is, the entity which is not assailed by klesha (afflictions), karma (reactions), vipáka (serving of reactions), and áshaya (bundle of unserved reactions) is called Iishvara. Whatever these definitions of Iishvara may be, here, by Iishvara, we mean the Supreme Controller of the universe, the Supreme Object of ideation for all living beings. Hence Iishvara prańidhána means to let the entire psychic energy flow towards Iishvara as the object of Supreme ideation. And dhyána means anudhyána. When sádhakas feel that the object of meditation – which is their life and soul – is trying to escape, they immediately run after Him and try to catch Him. This is called anudhyána.
Prańidhána and anudhyána together are called abhidhyána.
Tasyábhidhyánád yojanát tattvabhávád bhúyashcánte Vishvamáyámivittih
Through abhidhyána the unit mind remains continuously absorbed in the ideation of the Supreme Entity and finally merges in Him and consequently overcomes the influence of Vishvamáyá the creator of numerous differentiations. At this point the sadhakas finally attain non-discrimatory knowledge. To attain this stage worldly knowledge, social position, and skin colour are of no importance whatsoever. Even the different systems of worship, sacrifice, incantation, ostentatious devotion are insignificant. In psycho-spiritual practice the mind plays a vital role – the external rituals have no place. Just because a person has a holy dip in the Ganges and then puts on a sacred garment does not necessarily mean that he or she has attained that non-discriminatory knowledge. The water may cleanse the body, it is true, but how can it purify the mind and the soul? Fishes are having a holy dip in the Ganges every day. Does that help them to attain non-discriminatory knowledge? Hence the external observances, the ostentatious display of holy beads and coloured foreheads are not the means to attain divine knowledge.
Although all the great personalities are equally venerable yet different individuals have love for different personalities. The great devotee Hanuman was well aware of the fact that Náráyańa, the husband of Laxmi, and Rámachandra, the husband of Siita, were the same entity. Even then he was more attracted towards Rámachandra because, as he said,
Shriináthe Jánakiináthe cábhedo Paramátmani;
Tathápi mama sarvasvah Rámah kamalalocanah.
“I know Náráyańa and Ramachandra are basically one, yet to me the lotus-eyed Ramachandra is dearer.”
The state of non-discriminatory knowledge is called samprajiṋáta samádhi.
First let us analyse the difference between samprajiṋáta and savikalpa samádhi. Samprajiṋátá is derived as sampra – jiṋá + kta. The derivate meaning of the word is “proper and excellent knowledge.” And savikalpa is derived s+vi-kalp+al. During the state of savikalpa samádhi the sádhaka has a feeling that there is a second entity besides Paramátma. Hence this samádhi is called savikalpa samádhi.
The human mind, performs primarily two kinds of actions – saḿkalpátmaka and vikalpátmaka. When one decides, to do something it is called the saḿkalpátmaka state of mind, and when the samkalpa or resolution is materialized in the practical field, it is called vikalpátmaka action. During the state of samprajiṋáta samádhi, the unit citta is converted into Cognitive Faculty and thus the vikalpátmaka action of mind is suspended, although the samkalpátmaka state of mind is still quite active. But during the state of savikalpa samádhi, the samkalpátmaka state of mind remains only nominally active. And during the state of nirvikalpa samádhi both the samkalpátmaka and vikalpátmaka states of the mind are completely suspended. In that state of complete mindlessness, the sádhaka’s mind cannot function in any way, either in the individual sphere or collective sphere; and as one loses psychic vitality the nerve cells, nerve fibres and sense organs also stop functioning.
(On 14th May, 1970, at Ranchi jagrti, a certain sádhaka experienced this type of nirvikalpa samádhi in the presence of about twenty-five other sádhakas. That concerning sádhaka first sat in siddhásana with the spinal chord erect, and then began to practice dhyána on all the cakras – múládhar, svadhistána, mańipur, anáhata, vishudha. During that period he had a unique experience. He felt within that his dear object of meditation was dancing with two skulls. Thereafter, he raised his mind to ájiṋa cakra and began to practice dhyána in the prescribed dhyána mudra. Next, when he concentrated his mind on lalaná cakra, the function of the ten sense organs of his body was suspended. The sádhaka lost his mind in the Cosmic Mind and became one with the Cosmic Mind. He looked peaceful and serene.)
It was noted in the aforesaid instance that his indriyas and unit mind totally lost their power of functioning. And in the total absence of the mind-entity the unit mind can have no notion of duality. “Tasya sthitih amánasikeśu”. This is why this samádhi is called nirvikalpa samadhi. “Átmani mahadahaḿ cittánáḿ prańáshe nirgunásthitih nirvikalpa samádhi vá” (Ánanda Sútram).
Some sádhakas’ minds, the moment they reach the pituitary gland, stop functioning. The minds of some sádhakas cross all the cakras, rising in gradual ascendancy from the lowest cakra, and ultimately reach the sahasrára cakra. This is the highest state of realization in the spiritual sphere. When the unit mind goes beyond the jurisdiction of the indriyas, and the seeds of reactive momenta have been completely destroyed, it becomes altogether non-existent. In that state of complete mindlessness the jiiva gets completely merged in Shiva. The mind, after reaching the sahasrára (pineal plexus) does not return. And due to the obliteration of spatial differences the sádhaka dies a physical death.
Páshabaddho bhavejjiivo páshmukto bhavecchivo.
But the minds of those whose saḿskáras are not yet completely burnt up, descend again after remaining in a trance for a certain period. Some sádhakas’ minds, after reaching the stage of kalá, stop functioning. Under natural circumstances these sádhakas remain without any external body-consciousness for about five or six hours. If the mind rises still higher, they can remain unconscious for 24 hours.
Nature of the post-trance state: After the samádhi or trance is broken, two completely different pictures of the different worlds present themselves before the sádhaka. In the inner life he or she experiences an unbroken flow of bliss – an endless ocean of bliss, with external tranquillity and indescribable sweetness. On the other hand, the outer world appears to be dry, desolate and unsubstantial. In the inner life, he feels the most intimate contact and sweetest touch of the loving Father, but in the outer world, he or she feels detached from the original abode – the abode of eternal bliss. So this world of inferences appears to be dry and dreary. One feels difficulty in adjusting with the external world. The pangs of separation from the Lord affect one’s mind. As a result, sometimes one bursts into laughter, sometimes one breaks into sobs. To normal people his or her behaviour appears to be abnormal, but actually it reflects a very high stage of spiritual attainment. Soon afterwards, he or she attains the non-attributional stance – the highest state of spiritual attainment. Attaining this highest stage, by the Macrocosmic Grace, the sádhaka establishes himself in the original stance of the Supreme Entity – Parama Brahma.
Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 5 [a compilation]